Workers who handle materials must be trained on the safe procedures that apply to the material they are dealing with. Loading and unloading containers can lead to injuries ranging from minor to severe, which is why it is essential for companies to set appropriate standards for their employees. Unless the engine of a loading tank vehicle is used to operate a pump, class 3 material cannot be loaded, loaded, or unloaded from any motor vehicle cargo tank while the engine is running.Class 1 materials (explosives) cannot be loaded, loaded, or unloaded into any motor vehicle with the engine running, except that the engine of a multipurpose bulk bulk carrier truck (see paragraph (d) of this section) and the engine of a motor vehicle carrying a single hazardous material in bulk for blasting may be used for the operation of the vehicle's pumping equipment during loading or unloading. Each package containing hazardous material with the package orientation marks prescribed in § 172.312 of this subchapter must be loaded into a transport vehicle or inside a cargo container in accordance with those markings and must remain in the correct position indicated on the markings during transport.
Packages that have valves or other accessories should be loaded in a way that minimizes the likelihood of damage during transport.Cylinders containing class 2 materials (gases) shall not be loaded anywhere on the floor or platform of any motor vehicle that is not essentially flat; cylinders containing class 2 materials (gases) may only be loaded on any motor vehicle that does not have a floor or platform if that motor vehicle is equipped with suitable racks that have the appropriate means of fixing such cylinders in place.A carrier transporting hazardous materials in a cargo tank must ensure that the cargo tank has a qualified person present at all times during unloading. If a vehicle is to be transported aboard a vessel, other than a ferry, and is loaded with hazardous materials, that vehicle must meet the compatibility requirements of Part 176. I). The qualified person attending the unloading operation must have an unobstructed view of the cargo tank and the supply hose to the greatest extent possible, except for short periods when it is necessary to activate the controls or monitor the receiving container. No operator may discharge liquefied compressed gases from a cargo tank vehicle with a set of supply hoses that presents any condition identified in § 180.416 (g) (of this subchapter) or with piping systems that have any condition identified in § 180.416 (g) (of this subchapter).Cylinders containing Division 4.2 materials (pyrophoric liquid), unless packaged in a sturdy box or case and secured inside them to protect the valves, must be loaded with all valves and safety devices in the vapor space.
Nothing contained in this section shall be interpreted to prohibit loading such cylinders into any motor vehicle that has a floor or platform and shelves, as described above.These regulations were first introduced in file HM-181, which aimed to harmonize hazardous materials regulations in the United States with international standards to facilitate foreign trade and maintain US competitiveness. Until a loading tank vehicle is equipped with emergency discharge control equipment in accordance with articles 173.315 (n) (and 180.405 (m) () of this subchapter, the qualified person attending the unloading operation must remain within reach of a means of closing the internal automatic shut-off valve when the internal automatic shut-off valve is open, except for short periods when it is necessary to activate the controls or monitor the receiving container.Special care must also be taken when loading any motor vehicle with class 4 (flammable solids) or class 5 (oxidizing) materials, which may become more dangerous if they get wet during transport. To prevent this from happening, these materials should be kept dry during loading and transport. To load or unload any class 1 (explosive) material or other dangerous item, no tool shall be used that could damage the effectiveness of the closure of a package or other container, or that could adversely affect that package or container.